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The Downfall of Communism
By Dr. Aditya Kumar Mohanty
Communism, a social-economic-political system is based on the tenets of Marxism. Marxism is essentially a reactionary movement, which came as an antidote against the extreme exploitation of the tiling mass by the capitalist, in the post-industrial revolution era. It is based on certain fundamental postulates about Man and Society. Marx construed Matter, as the ultimate reality and economic factors, as the sole determinants of social change. According to him, social change follows the pattern of Dialectic. The inherent contradictions in the basic economic structure, manifest in form of class struggle giving rise to antithesis. It is followed by a state of synthesis (a higher social order) where the preceding contradictions are resolved. But this order again, precisely for the foregone reasons, give rise to its antithesis. The process of class contradictions continue until it reaches a point of absolute synthesis, marked by the complete withering away of class. Economy, being the sub-structure, any change in it, is bound to have its repercussions in the super-structures, i.e. political system, ethics, religion, etc. According the Marx, a class is constituted by individuals with homogenous economic interests. In economic sphere, Communism advocates State-ownership, whereof production and distribution is controlled by the state. The commune system becomes the dominant feature in the economic scenario. In politics, it subscribes to a totalitarian form of administration and envisions the dictatorship of the Proletariat which would, eventually, pave the way for a classless society. In social domain, it promotes the cause of collective interests.
The fall of Communism is a foregone fact and therefore the cause of its collapse is of historical interest. Marx sounded prophetic in saying that Capitalism will die a natural death because of its inherent contradictions. Through Marxism was supposed to salvage the suppressed and oppressed from the clutches of the exploiters, it came to nourish a new class of exploiters, that thrived on state power. The communistic regimes in different countries witnessed concentration of power in hands of few, at the helm of affairs; forcible suppression of the dissenting voice and action, reign of material values and norms, and degeneration of human- psyche.
History testifies that a movement which comes as a reaction, to obliterate a corrupt or decadent system bound to have its hey day. But it hardly outlive its utility because its vitality and momentum depends on the anomalies and limitations, it seeks to repudiate. Without being based on holistic vision of reality, it fails to adapt itself to changes in time, place and person. Communism could not be an exception to it. It is certainly myopic to construe Matter as the ultimate reality. The concept of matter is in question by the recent breakthroughs in Science and social experience. The materialistic promptings perhaps led its propounder to think of economic conditions to be the sole factors that initiate and regulate social change. It is too obvious to contend that, Man does not live by bread alone and Economic contradictions are no the only contradictions. Besides the homogeneous economic groups, there could be groups constituted on ethic, religious, linguistic feuds. Even, conceding that economic contradictions are reolved, it would not guarantee resolution of conflicts in all fronts. By riveting attention of the mass, only on the economic considerations, Marxism leaves no room for cultivation of higher values. It degenerates human mind. If Capitalism makes a man beggar, Communism degrades him to the state of beast, where one is conscious, only of one’s vegetative needs. Even if the Classless Society prevails, that would need a holistic value system for its existence and growth. But a holistic values system or social outlook can be built up, only on a holistic vision of reality. Human existence is trifarious, Physical, Psychic and Spiritual. All the Matter-centered philosophies turn the Psyche, outward. The extroversial flow of human psyche brings staticity and degeneration not only in the individual but also in collective living. In the commune system, where the individual is merely a cog in the wheel, there is hardly any incentive on the part of individual. Both in economic and political sphere, Marxism seeks to promote collective interest at the cost of the individual. This is again a fundamental anomaly that proved Communism to be suicidal. Collective interest cannont be ensured by ignoring the interest of the individual. The corporate body cannot be stable without enriching quality of individual life. Suppression of free thought and action, forestalls expression of creative potential of the individual. It thrives on muscle force rather than on moral force, advocates Internationalism rather than Universalism. It is theoretically unsound, unrealistic, un-psycholigical, anti-human, exploitative, non- progressive. Therefore, it had to have its inevitable doom.